quinta-feira, 7 de outubro de 2010
VIKINGS: The Vikings were known by the development of refined techniques of navigation
The Vikings are an ancient civilization originated in the Scandinavian region, which today comprises the territory of three European countries: Sweden, Denmark and Norway. Also known as Norse or Norman, they established a rich culture that had developed thanks to agriculture, handicraft and a remarkable maritime trade.
The life devoted to the seas also established the piracy as another important economic activity. In several raids carried out in Continental Europe, the Vikings plundered and conquered lands, especially in Britain, which now houses the United Kingdom. Chronologically, the Viking civilization reached its peak between the 8th and 11th centuries.
The process of invasion of Britain happened in the late 8th century. In the year 865, a powerful army of Danish Vikings waged a war that resulted in the conquest of much of the British lands. Thus, we see the consolidation of Danelaw, an extensive Viking territory that encompassed the Center-North and East of Britain. At the same time, the Vikings continued their expansion in Scottish lands.
The dwellings of the Vikings were very simple. Wood, stones and dry grass were the main factors used in the construction of residences. Moreover, we observe that the spatial distribution of home was very simple, often with the presence of a single room. In a little more affluent families, we observe the presence of a more complex division consists of rooms, kitchen and bedrooms.
Because of low temperatures, the Vikings had the expressed need for a garment that could withstand the freezing temperatures in northern Europe. Generally, they combined pieces of fabric with leather and thick skins that could keep their body warm. Moreover, we also emphasize that all the people enjoyed the use of accessories in metal and stone.
The Viking family organization had clear patriarchal traces, being the man largely responsible for family protection and realization of the main economic activities. Dedicated to the domestic domain, the woman was responsible for food preparation and also helped in small daily tasks. Children’s education was delegated to parents, being they who conveyed the Viking traditions and crafts.
The king was the main political authority among the Vikings. Shortly thereafter, the earls and chieftains also enjoyed great prestige and power of command among the population. The decision-making power between the sites had some presence among the Vikings. Gathered outdoors, they discussed the development of their own laws and punishments to be deferred against criminals.
In the religious sphere, the Vikings were carriers of a rich mythology populated by various gods systematically worshiped in collective events. Several stories involve the struggle between the Norse gods or the conflict between the gods and the giants. Odin was worshiped as “the God of gods”. Thor was the god of greater popularity and had power over the heavens and protected the Viking people.
With the Christianization of Europe, throughout the Middle Ages, the Vikings were gradually converted to this new religion. The dissolution of the Viking culture happens between the 11th and 12th centuries. The various conflicts against the English and the nobles of Normandy established the disintegration of this civilization, which is still manifest in some manifestations of European culture.